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How To Determine Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue, And Marginal Profit In Economics

November 22, 2021
Bill Kimball
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" alt="How to Calculate Marginal Cost" class="wp-post-image" style="display: block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;" width="480" height="360" /></p> <p>Recall that second derivatives give information about the change of slope. We can use that in conjunction with the first derivative at increasing points of x to determine identifying characteristics of functions. In order to understand the characteristics of optimum points, start with characteristics of the function itself.</p> <p>In the on the right side of the page, the short-run marginal cost forms a U-shape, with quantity on the x-axis and cost per unit on the y-axis. Variable costs are things that can change over time, such as costs for labor and raw materials. Below, we’ll examine critical concepts involving the use of marginal cost.</p> <p><img 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alt="How to Calculate Marginal Cost" class="aligncenter" style="display: block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;" width="480" height="360" /></p> <p>An example would be a production factory that has a lot of space capacity and becomes more efficient as more volume is produced. In addition, the business is able to negotiate lower material costs with suppliers at higher volumes, which makes variable costs lower over time. Johnson Tires, a public company, consistently manufactures 10,000 units of truck tires each year, incurring production costs of $5 million. Next, you need to calculate the increase in variable cost due to that increase in quantity.</p> <h2>How To Calculate Marginal Cost With Formula And Examples</h2> <p>The only difference between the curves is that the SRVC curve begins from the origin while the SRTC curve originates on the positive part of the vertical axis. The distance of the beginning point of the SRTC above the origin represents the fixed cost – the vertical distance between the curves. This distance remains constant as the quantity produced, Q, increases.</p> <p><img 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" alt="How to Calculate Marginal Cost" class="aligncenter" style="display: block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto;" width="375" height="259" /></p> <p>It goes the opposite way when the marginal cost of (n+1)th is higher than average cost. In this case, The average cost(n+1) will be higher than average cost. The U-shape graph reflects the law of diminishing returns. Find the output level at which your fixed costs would change. To calculate marginal cost, you need to know the total cost to produce one unit of whatever product or service you sell. Fixed costs should stay the same throughout your cost analysis, so you need to find the output level at which you would have to increase those fixed expenses.</p> <h2>Weighted Marginal Cost Of Capital</h2> <p>The following year in FY2018, driven by positive market demand the production increased substantially requiring the purchase of more raw materials as well as hire more manpower. Such spurt in demand resulted in an overall production cost to increase to $39.53 billion to produce a total of 398,650 units in that year. If the price you charge for a product is greater than the marginal cost, then revenue will be greater than the added cost and it makes sense to continue production. However, if the price charged is less than the marginal cost, then you will lose money and production should not expand. Of great importance in the theory of marginal cost is the distinction between the marginal private and social costs.</p> <p>To determine the quantity change, subtract the number of goods produced in the first production cycle from the volume of output produced in the next production cycle. The cost of every additional unit is now at 2000 dollars, whereas earlier it was at 1500 dollars. The company wanted to know whether to continue with the production or not. The long run here is defined as the length of time during which no inputs are fixed.</p> <p>Production quality is on the x-axis, and price is on the y-axis. On the graph, the marginal cost curves down before <a href="https://www.bookstime.com/articles/how-to-calculate-marginal-cost">How to Calculate Marginal Cost</a> increasing. The u-shaped curve represents the initial decrease in marginal cost when additional units are produced.</p> <h2>Debt As A Percentage Of Capital Revenue</h2> <p>His short run production function is given in the first two columns of the following table. When used in conjunction with skilled planning and marketing, margin cost pricing can be an excellent tool to use in sales, increasing liquidity, and so on. Get rid of old stock and clear their distribution chain for new products. This can help a company by reducing transportation and inventory storage expenses. Change in Quantityrefers to an obvious increase in the number of goods produced.</p> <p>It is the difference between the total quantity produced before the considered production run and the total quantity produced after the production run. In the case above, we have 100 units produced and then 200 produced. Therefore, for the second production run, the change in quantity is 200 – 100, which is 100. Furthermore, it is important to differentiate the short-run marginal cost from the long-run marginal cost.</p> <p>An online marginal cost calculator helps you to compute the cost of manufacturing the additional items. If you have no idea about the total change in cost and quantity, then you are not able to find the margin cost with the marginal cost formula. But, if you know current and future cost and quantity, then substitute these values in this calculator it will provide you the marginal cost quickly. Read on to understand how to find marginal cost using its formula and the change in cost and quantity.</p> <p>Producing 700 widgets would be more cost-effective than producing 500 widgets. Variable costs change based on production levels, so producing more units will add more variable costs. Analyzing marginal cost offers several potential benefits, including cost advantages through increased production efficiencies and whether or not product prices should increase based on any losses. If the selling price for a product is greater than the marginal cost, then earnings will still be greater than the added cost – a valid reason to continue production.</p> <p>For example, if it costs you $500 to produce 500 widgets and $550 to produce 600 widgets, your change in cost would be $50. Deduct the number of units in the first production run from the number of units in the second production run. To find the change in quantity, you simply subtract the old quantity from the new quantity. For example, suppose you run a spa that gives between 3 and 5 massages a day. You want to know the marginal cost of scheduling one additional massage.</p> <p>In economics, the marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented, the cost of producing additional quantity. In some contexts, it refers to an increment of one unit of output, and in others it refers to the rate of change of total cost as output is increased by an infinitesimal amount.</p> <h2>Use Charts, Linear Equations, And Nonlinear Equations To Determine Costs</h2> <p>As companies benefit from economies of scale, marginal costs begin to decrease. However, with the decline in company productivity and the impact of economies of scale, marginal costs may start to increase. At this time, the expenditure increases, and finally meets to the marginal revenue. Marginal costs are important in several businesses because they can help companies to maximize profits. If the marginal cost equals the marginal revenue, then we get the profit maximization. Therefore, the cost of manufacturing additional products is exactly equal to the company’s revenue from selling the products. In other words, the company is no longer making money at this time.</p> <div> <div> <h3>What is marginal cost Class 11?</h3> </div> <div> <div> <p>In economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>For a SaaS business, costs are thought about differently, considering mostly the CAC and ACS , which makes things trickier, but the basic idea is the same. Marginal cost refers to the increase or decrease in the cost of producing one more unit or serving one more customer. Fixed costs do not change if you increase or decrease production levels. So, you can spread the fixed costs across more units when you increase production (and we’ll get to that later).</p> <p>Short-run marginal cost is an economic concept that describes the cost of producing a small amount of additional units of a good or service. Marginal cost is a key concept for making businesses function well, since marginal costs determine how much production is optimal. If the revenue gained from producing more units of a good or service is less than the marginal cost, the unit should not be produced at all, since it will cause the company to lose money. The total cost per jewelry item would decrease to $3.50 ($1.50 fixed cost per unit + $2 variable costs). In this example, increasing production volume causes the marginal cost to go down.</p> <h2>Formula For Marginal Cost</h2> <p>If your ovens are capable of baking 1,000 cupcakes a day, then 1,000 would be the maximum quantity of cupcakes you would consider for your marginal cost analysis. If you produced more than 1,000 cupcakes, your fixed costs would change because you would have to buy an additional oven. The marginal cost of production is an economics and managerial accounting concept most often used among manufacturers as a means of isolating an optimum production level. Manufacturers often examine the cost of adding one more unit to their production schedules. When marginal costs are plotted on a graph, you should be able to see a U-shaped curve where costs begin high but they shift and go down as production increases. In many manufacturing scenarios, the marginal costs of production decrease when the output volume increases.</p> <ul> <li>To find out how much your production costs have changed, you can deduct the production cost of batch one from the production cost of batch two.</li> <li>Your total cost of production is $4,500 per month for 500 T-shirts.</li> <li>Thus, it would not make sense to put all of these numbers on the same graph, since they are measured in different units ($ versus $ per unit of output).</li> <li>Theoretically speaking, most companies will keep producing or selling goods or services until their marginal revenue is the same as the marginal cost of producing those items or services.</li> <li>Imagine that Company A regularly produces 10 handcrafted tables at the cost of $2,000.</li> <li>As a result, buying an additional unit of your product is worth less money to them.</li> </ul> <p>As there is no change in the fixed costs, the only factor to influence the marginal cost is the variations in the variable cost. The marginal cost is the cost to produce each additional unit of production. At each level of production, the total cost of production may witness surge or decline, based on the fact whether there is a need to increase production volume or decrease the same.</p> <p>Now we can calculate total variable cost at a given point by substituting for Q. All you need to do to calculate marginal profit is to take the difference between your company’s marginal cost and its marginal revenue. This is also sometimes referred to as “marginal product,” but it all amounts to the same thing. Image SourceOnce you’ve started to track your company’s marginal revenue and marginal costs, you’ll be able to start calculating marginal profit. To make sure you’re getting your marginal revenue just right, you’ve also got to consider marginal cost, marginal profit, and marginal benefit.</p> <h2>Marginal Cost Examples</h2> <p>Knowing how to calculate marginal cost is important because every business should strive to expand to a point where marginal cost is equal to marginal value. So, let’s start by exploring what marginal cost is and how to find the marginal costs associated with your business. The breakdown of total costs into fixed and variable costs can provide a basis for other insights as well.</p> <p>In this example, it costs $0.01 more per unit to produce over 500 units. Each T-shirt you produce requires $5.00 of T-shirt and screen printing materials to produce, which are your variable costs. You spend $2,000 each month on fixed costs (e.g., overhead). Marginal cost is the change in the cost of producing additional units, which is crucial to pricing.</p> <p>In the average cost calculation, the rise in the numerator of total costs is relatively small compared to the rise in the denominator of quantity produced. But as output expands still further, the average cost begins to rise. At the right side of the average cost curve, total costs begin rising more rapidly as diminishing returns kick in. Economies of scale apply to the long run, a span of time in which all inputs can be varied by the firm so that there are no fixed inputs or fixed costs. Conversely, there may be levels of production where marginal cost is higher than average cost, and the average cost is an increasing function of output. Where there are economies of scale, prices set at marginal cost will fail to cover total costs, thus requiring a subsidy. For this generic case, minimum average cost occurs at the point where average cost and marginal cost are equal .</p> "

How to Calculate Marginal Cost

Recall that second derivatives give information about the change of slope. We can use that in conjunction with the first derivative at increasing points of x to determine identifying characteristics of functions. In order to understand the characteristics of optimum points, start with characteristics of the function itself.

In the on the right side of the page, the short-run marginal cost forms a U-shape, with quantity on the x-axis and cost per unit on the y-axis. Variable costs are things that can change over time, such as costs for labor and raw materials. Below, we’ll examine critical concepts involving the use of marginal cost.

How to Calculate Marginal Cost

An example would be a production factory that has a lot of space capacity and becomes more efficient as more volume is produced. In addition, the business is able to negotiate lower material costs with suppliers at higher volumes, which makes variable costs lower over time. Johnson Tires, a public company, consistently manufactures 10,000 units of truck tires each year, incurring production costs of $5 million. Next, you need to calculate the increase in variable cost due to that increase in quantity.

How To Calculate Marginal Cost With Formula And Examples

The only difference between the curves is that the SRVC curve begins from the origin while the SRTC curve originates on the positive part of the vertical axis. The distance of the beginning point of the SRTC above the origin represents the fixed cost – the vertical distance between the curves. This distance remains constant as the quantity produced, Q, increases.

How to Calculate Marginal Cost

It goes the opposite way when the marginal cost of (n+1)th is higher than average cost. In this case, The average cost(n+1) will be higher than average cost. The U-shape graph reflects the law of diminishing returns. Find the output level at which your fixed costs would change. To calculate marginal cost, you need to know the total cost to produce one unit of whatever product or service you sell. Fixed costs should stay the same throughout your cost analysis, so you need to find the output level at which you would have to increase those fixed expenses.

Weighted Marginal Cost Of Capital

The following year in FY2018, driven by positive market demand the production increased substantially requiring the purchase of more raw materials as well as hire more manpower. Such spurt in demand resulted in an overall production cost to increase to $39.53 billion to produce a total of 398,650 units in that year. If the price you charge for a product is greater than the marginal cost, then revenue will be greater than the added cost and it makes sense to continue production. However, if the price charged is less than the marginal cost, then you will lose money and production should not expand. Of great importance in the theory of marginal cost is the distinction between the marginal private and social costs.

To determine the quantity change, subtract the number of goods produced in the first production cycle from the volume of output produced in the next production cycle. The cost of every additional unit is now at 2000 dollars, whereas earlier it was at 1500 dollars. The company wanted to know whether to continue with the production or not. The long run here is defined as the length of time during which no inputs are fixed.

Production quality is on the x-axis, and price is on the y-axis. On the graph, the marginal cost curves down before How to Calculate Marginal Cost increasing. The u-shaped curve represents the initial decrease in marginal cost when additional units are produced.

Debt As A Percentage Of Capital Revenue

His short run production function is given in the first two columns of the following table. When used in conjunction with skilled planning and marketing, margin cost pricing can be an excellent tool to use in sales, increasing liquidity, and so on. Get rid of old stock and clear their distribution chain for new products. This can help a company by reducing transportation and inventory storage expenses. Change in Quantityrefers to an obvious increase in the number of goods produced.

It is the difference between the total quantity produced before the considered production run and the total quantity produced after the production run. In the case above, we have 100 units produced and then 200 produced. Therefore, for the second production run, the change in quantity is 200 – 100, which is 100. Furthermore, it is important to differentiate the short-run marginal cost from the long-run marginal cost.

An online marginal cost calculator helps you to compute the cost of manufacturing the additional items. If you have no idea about the total change in cost and quantity, then you are not able to find the margin cost with the marginal cost formula. But, if you know current and future cost and quantity, then substitute these values in this calculator it will provide you the marginal cost quickly. Read on to understand how to find marginal cost using its formula and the change in cost and quantity.

Producing 700 widgets would be more cost-effective than producing 500 widgets. Variable costs change based on production levels, so producing more units will add more variable costs. Analyzing marginal cost offers several potential benefits, including cost advantages through increased production efficiencies and whether or not product prices should increase based on any losses. If the selling price for a product is greater than the marginal cost, then earnings will still be greater than the added cost – a valid reason to continue production.

For example, if it costs you $500 to produce 500 widgets and $550 to produce 600 widgets, your change in cost would be $50. Deduct the number of units in the first production run from the number of units in the second production run. To find the change in quantity, you simply subtract the old quantity from the new quantity. For example, suppose you run a spa that gives between 3 and 5 massages a day. You want to know the marginal cost of scheduling one additional massage.

In economics, the marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented, the cost of producing additional quantity. In some contexts, it refers to an increment of one unit of output, and in others it refers to the rate of change of total cost as output is increased by an infinitesimal amount.

Use Charts, Linear Equations, And Nonlinear Equations To Determine Costs

As companies benefit from economies of scale, marginal costs begin to decrease. However, with the decline in company productivity and the impact of economies of scale, marginal costs may start to increase. At this time, the expenditure increases, and finally meets to the marginal revenue. Marginal costs are important in several businesses because they can help companies to maximize profits. If the marginal cost equals the marginal revenue, then we get the profit maximization. Therefore, the cost of manufacturing additional products is exactly equal to the company’s revenue from selling the products. In other words, the company is no longer making money at this time.

What is marginal cost Class 11?

In economics, marginal cost is the change in the total cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit; that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.

For a SaaS business, costs are thought about differently, considering mostly the CAC and ACS , which makes things trickier, but the basic idea is the same. Marginal cost refers to the increase or decrease in the cost of producing one more unit or serving one more customer. Fixed costs do not change if you increase or decrease production levels. So, you can spread the fixed costs across more units when you increase production (and we’ll get to that later).

Short-run marginal cost is an economic concept that describes the cost of producing a small amount of additional units of a good or service. Marginal cost is a key concept for making businesses function well, since marginal costs determine how much production is optimal. If the revenue gained from producing more units of a good or service is less than the marginal cost, the unit should not be produced at all, since it will cause the company to lose money. The total cost per jewelry item would decrease to $3.50 ($1.50 fixed cost per unit + $2 variable costs). In this example, increasing production volume causes the marginal cost to go down.

Formula For Marginal Cost

If your ovens are capable of baking 1,000 cupcakes a day, then 1,000 would be the maximum quantity of cupcakes you would consider for your marginal cost analysis. If you produced more than 1,000 cupcakes, your fixed costs would change because you would have to buy an additional oven. The marginal cost of production is an economics and managerial accounting concept most often used among manufacturers as a means of isolating an optimum production level. Manufacturers often examine the cost of adding one more unit to their production schedules. When marginal costs are plotted on a graph, you should be able to see a U-shaped curve where costs begin high but they shift and go down as production increases. In many manufacturing scenarios, the marginal costs of production decrease when the output volume increases.

  • To find out how much your production costs have changed, you can deduct the production cost of batch one from the production cost of batch two.
  • Your total cost of production is $4,500 per month for 500 T-shirts.
  • Thus, it would not make sense to put all of these numbers on the same graph, since they are measured in different units ($ versus $ per unit of output).
  • Theoretically speaking, most companies will keep producing or selling goods or services until their marginal revenue is the same as the marginal cost of producing those items or services.
  • Imagine that Company A regularly produces 10 handcrafted tables at the cost of $2,000.
  • As a result, buying an additional unit of your product is worth less money to them.

As there is no change in the fixed costs, the only factor to influence the marginal cost is the variations in the variable cost. The marginal cost is the cost to produce each additional unit of production. At each level of production, the total cost of production may witness surge or decline, based on the fact whether there is a need to increase production volume or decrease the same.

Now we can calculate total variable cost at a given point by substituting for Q. All you need to do to calculate marginal profit is to take the difference between your company’s marginal cost and its marginal revenue. This is also sometimes referred to as “marginal product,” but it all amounts to the same thing. Image SourceOnce you’ve started to track your company’s marginal revenue and marginal costs, you’ll be able to start calculating marginal profit. To make sure you’re getting your marginal revenue just right, you’ve also got to consider marginal cost, marginal profit, and marginal benefit.

Marginal Cost Examples

Knowing how to calculate marginal cost is important because every business should strive to expand to a point where marginal cost is equal to marginal value. So, let’s start by exploring what marginal cost is and how to find the marginal costs associated with your business. The breakdown of total costs into fixed and variable costs can provide a basis for other insights as well.

In this example, it costs $0.01 more per unit to produce over 500 units. Each T-shirt you produce requires $5.00 of T-shirt and screen printing materials to produce, which are your variable costs. You spend $2,000 each month on fixed costs (e.g., overhead). Marginal cost is the change in the cost of producing additional units, which is crucial to pricing.

In the average cost calculation, the rise in the numerator of total costs is relatively small compared to the rise in the denominator of quantity produced. But as output expands still further, the average cost begins to rise. At the right side of the average cost curve, total costs begin rising more rapidly as diminishing returns kick in. Economies of scale apply to the long run, a span of time in which all inputs can be varied by the firm so that there are no fixed inputs or fixed costs. Conversely, there may be levels of production where marginal cost is higher than average cost, and the average cost is an increasing function of output. Where there are economies of scale, prices set at marginal cost will fail to cover total costs, thus requiring a subsidy. For this generic case, minimum average cost occurs at the point where average cost and marginal cost are equal .